In order to develop empowerment into a theory I first had to sort the accepted meanings, to discuss them, to analyze ... (Zimmerman & Rappaport, 1988). Zimmerman, M. (2000). Empowerment Theory provides a […] The process of empowerment, involves the development of consciousness — consciousness raising/conscientization, and psychological empowerment (Carr, 2003, p. 15; Zimmerman 1995) — facilitating a reduction in self-blame, an assumption of personal responsibility for change, and enhancement of self-efficacy (Gutierrez et al, 1995, p. 535). Individual empowerment may also be known and described as psychological empowerment. Ward and Mullender 1991; Zimmerman 1990), a more gen-eral, overarching, sociological point of view might contrib-ute some missing pieces in empowerment theory. Empowerment can be defined as “a construct that links individual strengths and competencies, natural helping systems, and proactive behaviours to social policy and social change” (Rappaport, 1981, as cited in Zimmerman, 1995, p. 569). For The empowerment concept The concept of empowerment originated in social psychology (Rappaport, 1981, p. 15): …“By empowerment I mean that our aim should be to enhance the possibilities for people to control their own lives.”… The empowerment theory includes processes and outcomes (Perkins and Zimmerman, 1995). We live within a social … Essential to this construct is the notion of "social being": the assumption that every person lives his/her life as social historical experience. Empowerment in counseling settings involves working with clients to make changes that they want to make in their lives. The internal process is … It helps youth develop the skills they need to assess their community, and it gives them decision-making power in developing and implementing community change projects. Zimmerman describes three aspects of individual, or psychological, empowerment: intrapersonal, interactional, and behavioral. Empowerment theory, research, and intervention link individual well-being with the … A theoreti-cal analysis of three power-related preconditions sets the Sarah A. Stoddard, Kathryn Hughesdon, Angubeen Khan, Marc A. Zimmerman, Feasibility and acceptability of a future‐oriented empowerment program to prevent substance use and school dropout among school‐disengaged youth, Public Health Nursing, 10.1111/phn.12706, 37, 2, (251-261), (2020). This introduction to the special issue briefly reviews the meaning and significance of the empowerment concept and problems associated with the proliferation of interest in empowerment. YES is a program that includes empowering processes for youth. We identify some of the topics not included in this issue and relate those to the many broad and diverse areas of psychological empowerment theory and community-based research and intervention that are covered. Empowerment theory. Participating in empowering activities can help youth avoid risky behaviors and develop into productive healthy adults. Empowerment evaluation is largely based on Zimmerman‟s theory of empowerment (Fetterman, 1996). This theory can be applied to community development by empowering the people within the community to develop their own community. Empowerment is a construct that links individual strengths and competencies, natural helping systems, and proactive behaviors to social policy and social change (Rappaport, 1981, 1984). Empowerment theory (Perkins & Zimmerman, 1995; Sadan, 1997; Zimmerman 1995, 2000) encompasses both processes and outcomes. 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